Prevalence, knowledge and associated factors on self-medication practice among the community of Lalitpur Metropolitan City, Nepal: a cross-sectional study

Birendra Shrivastava (1) , Omi Bajracharya (2) , Rajani Shakya (3)
(1) School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jaipur National University, Jagatpura, Jaipur, India, India ,
(2) Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, KIST Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Imadol, Lalitpur, Nepal, Nepal ,
(3) School of Pharmacy, Faculty of School of Pharmacy, Kathmandu University, Dulikhel, Nepal, Nepal


Self-medicine has become one of the important components in day-to-day life to treat mild ailments. If not used rationally, it may lead to serious public health issues. The aim of this study is to explore the prevalence, knowledge, and associated risk factors of self-medication practice among the community of the Lalitpur Metropolitan City of Nepal. A cross-sectional community based prospective study was conducted among 1,004 participants of the Lalitpur Metropolitan City using a pretested and validated questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential analysis with an alpha level of 0.05 by using SPSS. The prevalence of self-medication was 45.20%. The three most common ailments for practicing self-medication were fever, headache, and cough/cold. The top reason for self-medication was minor illness. The study indicated that overall knowledge scores were significantly associated with self-medication (P<0.001). Multiple logistic regression showed the elderly are more oriented towards self-medication practice [AOR=5.22 (95%CI: 2.73-9.98)]. The health professional families have a high affinity towards self-medication practice [AOR=2.82 (95%CI: 1.68-4.75)]. Likewise, storing medicine at home [AOR= 7.01 (95%CI: 5.10-9.64)] and poor knowledge of medicine use were [AOR=1.81 (95%CI: 1.14-2.88)] more likely to prefer self-medication. The prevalence of self-medication was high, mostly due to the poor knowledge about appropriate medicine used. Self-medication is unavoidable in many situations; therefore, implementation of action plans to improve awareness about the consequences of self-medication is needed, thus facilitating its responsible use by the community.

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Birendra Shrivastava
Omi Bajracharya (Primary Contact)
Rajani Shakya
Birendra Shrivastava, Omi Bajracharya, & Rajani Shakya. (2021). Prevalence, knowledge and associated factors on self-medication practice among the community of Lalitpur Metropolitan City, Nepal: a cross-sectional study. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 12(2), 1108–1118. Retrieved from

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