A Systematic Review of Solubility Enhancement Techniques Used for BCS Class II & IV

Pavankumar Dhoble (1) , Bharat Tekade (2) , Vishal Bodke (3) , Mohan Kale (4)
(1) Department of Pharmaceutics, Konkan Gyanpeeth Rahul Dharkar college of pharmacy and Research institute, Karjat, Maharashtra, India , India ,
(2) Department of Pharmaceutics, H K college of pharmacy, Oshiwara, Jogeshwari, Mumbai, India, India ,
(3) Department of Pharmaceutics, Konkan Gyanpeeth Rahul Dharkar college of pharmacy and Research institute, Karjat, Maharashtra, India , India ,
(4) Konkan Gyanpeeth Rahul Dharkar College of Pharmacy And Research Institute, Karjat, Maharashtra, India, India


Because of their low solubility, pharmaceutical researchers encounter tremendous difficulties in creating sustainable and more soluble drugs (BCS class II). About 40% of oral dosage forms have formulation and development problems due to water insolubility. The rate of dissolving, absorption, distribution, and excretion of an active medicinal substance is determined by its solubility parameters. Based on their solubility, drugs are divided into four kinds under the BCS categorization system. BCS Class II and Class IV drugs have problems with solubility. Increasing both the bioavailability and the solubility of poorly soluble medications can be accomplished in several ways. Some techniques—like solid dispersion, solid complexation, liquisolid, hydrotropy, sonocrystallization, and self-emulsifying techniques—are commonly used for solubility augmentation. Until an orally active medication dissolves in the lining of the stomach and/or intestinal fluids, it cannot pass through the GI tract membrane and enter the bloodstream. Therefore, a medication that is insoluble in water will typically exhibit limited absorption by dissolution, and a medication that is weakly permeabilized via membranes would typically exhibit limited absorption through permeation. Consequently, improving the oral bioavailability of active substances is the focus of two areas of pharmaceutical research: (i) accelerating the process of dissolution and solubility of drugs that are poorly soluble in water, and (ii) accelerating the permeability of poorly permeable drugs.

Full text article

Generated from XML file


Sareen S, Mathew G, Joseph L. Improvement in solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs by solid dispersion. Int J Pharm Investig. 2012 Jan;2(1):12-7. doi: 10.4103/2230-973X.96921. PMID: 23071955; PMCID: PMC3465159.

Savjani KT, Gajjar AK, Savjani JK. Drug solubility: importance and enhancement techniques. ISRN Pharm. 2012;2012:195727. doi: 10.5402/2012/195727. Epub 2012 Jul 5. PMID: 22830056; PMCID: PMC3399483.

Khatri, Himanshi & Hussain, Md Sadique & Tyagi, Swati. (2022). Solubility Enhancement Techniques: An Overview. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 11. 468-482. 10.20959/wjpr20225-23812.

Bhalani, D.V.; Nutan, B.; Kumar, A.; Singh Chandel, A.K. Bioavailability Enhancement Techniques for Poorly Aqueous Soluble Drugs and Therapeutics. Biomedicines 2022, 10, 2055.

Narmada I. Contemporary Review on Solubility Enhancement Techniques. JDDT [Internet]. 15Feb.2023 13(2):110-2.

Albetawi S, Abdalhafez A, Abu-Zaid A, Matrouk A, Alhourani N. Recent solubility and dissolution enhancement techniques for repaglinide a BCS class II drug: a review. Pharmacia 68(3): 573-583.

Sopyan I, Gozali D, Megantara S, Wahyuningrum R, Sunan Ks I. Review: An Efforts To Increase The Solubility And Dissolution Of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients. Int J App Pharm [Internet]. 2022 Jan. 7 [cited 2023 Dec. 22];14(1):22-7.

Dn Cp, A S. A Solubility Enhancement Of Aceclofenac By New Crystallization Technique. Asian J Pharm Clin Res [Internet]. 2022 Feb. 7 [cited 2023 Dec. 22];15(2):113-8.

Sarkar P, Das S, Majee Sb. Solid Dispersion Tablets In Improving Oral Bioavailability Of Poorly Soluble Drugs. Int J Curr Pharm Sci [Internet]. 2022 Mar. 15 [cited 2023 Dec. 22];14(2):15-20.

Deshmukh AS, Tiwari KJ, Mahajan VR. Solubility Enhancement Techniques for Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs. Scopus Indexed [Internet]. 2017 May 31 [cited 2023 Oct. 20];10(3):3701-8.

Abdullah Ali H, Kamal Omer H. Solubility Enhancement of a Poorly Water-Soluble Drug Using Hydrotropy and Mixed Hydrotropy-Based Solid Dispersion Techniques. Adv Pharmacol Pharm Sci. 2022 Nov 28;2022:7161660. doi: 10.1155/2022/7161660. PMID: 36479276; PMCID: PMC9722314.

Charalabidis A, Sfouni M, Bergström C, Macheras P. The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) and the Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS): Beyond guidelines. Int J Pharm. 2019 Jul 20;566:264-281. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.05.041.

Rahman, Asim, and Md. Faheem Haider. “Solubility of Drugs, Their Enhancement, Factors Affecting and Their Limitations: A Review.” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 79, no. 2, Apr. 2023.

Agustina R, Setyaningsih D. Solid Dispersion As A Potential Approach To Improve Dissolution And Bioavailability Of Curcumin From Turmeric (Curcuma Longa L.). Int J App Pharm [Internet]. 2023 Sep. 7 [cited 2023 Dec. 22];15(5):37-4.

B.A. Bhairav, J.K. Bachhav, R.B. Saudagar. Review on Solubility Enhancement Techniques. Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2016; 6(3): 147-152.

Attia, Mohamed Salah. “Solid Dispersion as a Technical Solution to Boost the Dissolution Rate and Bioavailability of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs.” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, vol. 55, no. 2s, 2021, pp. s327–39.

Purwa Jain, Achhrish Goel, Shweta Sharma, & Meghal Parmar. (2022). Solubility Enhancement Techniques With Special Emphasis On Hydrotrophy. International Journal Of Pharma Professional’s Research (Ijppr), 1(1), 34-45.

Bhalani DV, Nutan B, Kumar A, Singh Chandel AK. Bioavailability Enhancement Techniques for Poorly Aqueous Soluble Drugs and Therapeutics. Biomedicines. 2022 Aug 23;10(9):2055. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines10092055. PMID: 36140156; PMCID: PMC9495787.

Williams HD, Trevaskis NL, Charman SA, Shanker RM, Charman WN, Pouton CW, Porter CJ. Strategies to address low drug solubility in discovery and development. Pharmacol Rev. 2013 Jan;65(1):315-499. doi: 10.1124/pr.112.005660. PMID: 23383426.

Strategies for Low Drug Solubility Hywel D. Williams, Natalie L. Trevaskis, Susan A. Charman, Ravi M. Shanker, William N. Charman, Colin W. Pouton and Christopher J. H. Porter.

Zhang X, Xing H, Zhao Y, Ma Z. Pharmaceutical Dispersion Techniques for Dissolution and Bioavailability Enhancement of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs. Pharmaceutics. 2018 Jun 23;10(3):74. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics10030074. PMID: 29937483; PMCID: PMC6161168.

Mahmood T, Sarfraz RM, Ismail A, Ali M, Khan AR. Pharmaceutical Methods for Enhancing the Dissolution of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2023 Feb-Mar;21(2):65-79. doi: 10.1089/adt.2022.119. PMID: 36917562.


Pavankumar Dhoble
pavandhoble1@gmail.com (Primary Contact)
Bharat Tekade
Vishal Bodke
Mohan Kale
Dhoble, P. ., Tekade, B. ., Bodke, V. ., & Kale, M. . (2024). A Systematic Review of Solubility Enhancement Techniques Used for BCS Class II & IV. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 15(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.26452/ijrps.v15i1.4658

Article Details

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

No Related Submission Found