International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences <p align="justify">International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJRPS) ISSN: 0975-7538 sponsored by JK Welfare &amp; Pharmascope Foundation is established in the year 2009 with people from various avenues of the pharmacy profession. IJRPS is completely devoted to publications related to Pharmaceuticals and Health Sciences. IJRPS will be published quarterly. The journal publishes original research work that contributes significantly to further the scientific knowledge in Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences.</p> en-US (Editor) (Managing Editor) Tue, 05 Apr 2022 05:21:32 +0000 OJS 60 Drinking Water and Sanitation Practices in North-Western Part of Kottayam District - A Cross Sectional Epidemiological Study <p>Safe drinking water and good sanitation facilities are prime factors for a healthy community. This will in turn limit the spread of diarrhoeal diseases. The purpose of the present cross-sectional epidemiological study was to obtain baseline data on drinking water in Vaikom, Kottayam district, Kerala, India. In this study, thirty households were surveyed and the targeted participants were mothers of the households with children under the age of five. Drinking water samples were collected and analyzed for bacterial contamination by membrane filtration (MF) techniques. 40% of the households used borehole water, while 33.3% used household tap water, 16.7% used healthy water and 6.7% depended on tanker truck water as a drinking water source. Only 3.3% uses bottled water as the primary drinking water source.73% of the water samples collected from tanker truck source are contaminated with <em>Escherichia coli</em>(<em>E.Coli) </em>and 61% of well water samples are contaminated with <em>E.coli</em>. For the bottled water category, it was seen only 2% was contaminated. Any presence of <em>E.coli </em>in the potable water means it is not safe to use. Continuous monitoring of water quality and effectiveness of the treatment processes, and following regulations, are essential to ensure that the water quality meets the set standards.</p> Sreekanth .S. Kaithavalappil, Deepa Sreekanth, Anjana Karunakaran Nair, Dayana Nicholas, Kenneth Nelson Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 11 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of vestibular stimulation on cold water stress-induced neurological changes in Wistar rats <p>The current study was undertaken to see the effects of cold-water stress on the brain and to evaluate the beneficial effect of vestibular stimulation on stress-induced brain changes. Healthy, male, Wistar rats, weighing 180 to 250 gm with 3-6 months of age, were used for the study. Stress was induced by making the animals swim in cold water maintained at 10<sup>0</sup>C for 30 min a day, for 14 days. Following cold water swimming stress, bilateral hot water caloric vestibular stimulation was given to the animals using 41<sup>0</sup>C temperature water for 15 days. Rats were sacrificed and histopathological brain changes were studied by Hematoxylin &amp; Eosin staining. Serum corticosterone level has increased significantly after cold water swimming stress (p&lt;0.01). Corticosterone was less in animals that received caloric vestibular stimulation in comparison with the animals which did not receive caloric vestibular stimulation (p&lt;0.05). Coldwater swimming stress had induced focal neuronal atrophy, nuclear pyknosis with congested blood vessels and infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Stressed animals that received caloric vestibular stimulation recovered well and showed the cerebral cortex with the normal neuroglial arrangement. Hypothalamus showed normal morphology and the hippocampus showed a pyramidal layer with a normal thickness in comparison to the animals which did not receive caloric vestibular stimulation. We conclude Caloric vestibular stimulation was effective in reversing the cold-water stress-induced serum corticosterone and histopathological changes in the brain.</p> Rama Kranthi T, Archana R, Senthilkumar Sivanesan Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of hypertensive retinopathy in hypertensive patients <p>Hypertension manifests in the eyes as retinopathy, choroidopathy and optic neuropathy of which retinopathy can be used as a predictor for systemic morbidities and mortalities. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of retinopathy in hypertensive patients and determine the correlation of retinopathy with parameters like age, sex, duration of hypertension, severity of hypertension and control of hypertension. This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study done in patients attending our hospital between January to March 2019 comprising of 200 patients. The grading of retinopathy was done using Keith-Wagner-Barker system. The presence of retinopathy was compared with parameters like age, sex and duration of hypertension. Statistical analysis was done using MS-Excel and Chi-square test. Among the 200 hypertensive patients (117 males, 83 females), 57 patients had retinopathy (28.5%) of which 35 were males and 22 were females. Among patients with retinopathy, 32 had Grade 1, 16 had Grade 2, 8 had Grade 3 and 1 had Grade 4 retinopathy. Based on the severity of hypertension, 8 out of 61 patients having mild hypertension, 25 out of 81 patients had moderate hypertension and 24 out of 58 patients having severe hypertension, had retinopathy. The prevalence of retinopathy was higher in patients with hypertension for 5 years or more (54.4%) than those with hypertension with less than 5 years (21.8%). Our study showed prevalence of hypertensive retinopathy to be 28.5%. Severity of hypertension and duration of hypertension <span style="text-decoration: underline;">&gt;</span> 5 years was found to have an association with hypertensive retinopathy.</p> Ifrath Nusaiba, Panimalar Veeramani Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Histological and Physiological assessment of Endothelin-1 and Cholesterol in breast cancer of women <p>The current study included two aspects, one of which is histological and the other physiological. It included (75) blood samples from women with breast cancer, in addition to (15) blood samples for healthy women as control, in addition to collecting tissue biopsy from the mammary glands of some women whose blood samples were drawn Including them in advance. Those diagnosed with breast cancer and ages ranged between 38-68 years, where the study was conducted from 1 May 2019 to 2 October 2019. Gland tissue and the owner of those tumours swelling of the axillary lymph nodes. Another cancer that was found was papillary carcinoma, where epithelial hyperplasia appeared in the form of large papillae that filled the cavity of the gland. There is a large number of white blood cells and severe hematoma. Another type of gland cancer discovered is cribriform carcinoma, which is a rare case. Invasive cancer is the most dangerous, as it is observed in the glandular tissue with the presence of agglutination and crowding of tumour cells and tumour cysts. The study also showed haematological changes characterized by a highly significant concentration of Endothelin-1 (P ≤ 0.01) in the blood of women with breast cancer group 5 and group 4, compared to the control group as a usual case. At the same time, there was a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the con- centration of Endothelin-1 in infected women in groups 3, 2 and 6 compared to the control group. The study showed a very significant decrease (P ≤ 0.01) in the cholesterol concentration of women with breast cancer of group 5, and group 6 compared to the control group, while its level decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in-group 4 compared to the control group. </p> Hussein I. H. Al-Azzawi, Zaid M. M. Almahdawi, Ayad H. Ibrahim, Wieeam A. Saleh Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Correlation of Serum Uric Acid Levels With Diabetic Complications <p>Diabetes is the leading cause of adult blindness, end stage renal disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, foot ulcers and lower limb amputations. Serum uric acid levels independently predict the development of macro vascular and micro vascular complications. In this study we analyse the association of serum uric acid with the macro and micro vascular complications of diabetes. In this hospital based observational study, hundred diabetic patients were included; of which fifty had complications, the remaining fifty had no complications. Blood investigations including fasting and post prandial blood sugars, glycosylated haemoglobin, serum creatinine, micro albuminuria, lipid profile, serum uric acid were done in all patients. All the parameters were compared between the two groups. Males with complications had significant high uric acid than females with complications. HbA1c, total cholesterol levels, micro albuminuria, serum creatinine had a positive correlation with the serum uric acid. Uric acid levels were higher among patients with complications compared to patients without complications which was statistically significant (p =0.00001). Patients with nephropathy, retinopathy and coronary heart disease had elevation in serum uric acid levels which was statistically significant. Patients with complications had higher uric acid levels than patients without complications.</p> Mahitha M, Mahendra Kumar K Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 09 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of antioxidant activities and quantitative estimation of phytochemicals in Kandelia candel (L.) Druce <p><em>Kandelia candel</em>, a mangrove belonging to the family Rhizophoraceae, the whole plant is reported to have anti-diabetic properties and was studied for the evaluation of <em>in vitro </em>antioxidant and antidiabetic study. Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) and Total Alkaloid Content were quantitatively estimated by using standard protocols. The study evaluated the antioxidant activity of the extract and the method was employed for the evaluation of antioxidant activity are DPPH radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay and Phosphomolybdenum assay. Potent antioxidant activities were shown by the acetonitrile extract and water extract of leaf and stem in all the assays. Acetonitrile extract of bark showing highest DPPH scavenging activity (IC<sub>50</sub> = 31.84 g/ml). Plant extract showing poor, reducing power. The better reduction of molybdenum was shown by acetonitrile extract of bark followed by leaf (617.33 ± 4.44).&nbsp; Chloroform, acetonitrile and water extract of leaf and bark of <em>Kandelia candel, </em>were evaluated for antidiabetic activity by alpha-amylase inhibition assay, Water and acetonitrile extract show good inhibition. Highest TPC and TFC were obtained for the acetonitrile extract of bark (237.6 ± 1.06 and 1277.19 ± 3.41).&nbsp; These findings show that the polyphenolic constituents in the extracts are responsible for free radical scavenging capacity. The results of this study indicate that this plant is medicinal with prominent antioxidant activities.</p> Jasna T K, Khaleel K M Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 11 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Flat-foot in overweight is an escalating health problem among college going students <p>Flat-foot is a remedial condition, where the foot does not have a normal longitudinal health arch while standing. The study aims at assessing and associating flat-foot levels among college students. The study design adopted with a simple sampling technique was an exploratory survey design that selected 102 students. Inclusion requirements include age: 18 to 24, both genders. Body mass index 25.0 and bilateral/unilateral flat-foot index. The resource consists of a structured questionnaire in Section A. The goal of section B was to use the Denis method to test the flat foot. The majority of college students who are overweight belong to the Grade 1 category. In the age-wise category, between 17 years and 20 years, 18 of them were flat-foot in Grade 1, 11 were flat-foot in Grade 2, and 4 were in Grade 3, for a flat toe. In Grade 2, 14 males were flat-foot, and in Grade 1, 21 females were flat-foot about gender. Students ranged in height from 1.40 m to 1.53 m, 16 of whom were flat-foot grade 1 and students under 76 to 100 kg were flat-foot grade 1, and their BMI ranged from 25 to 34, 22 of whom were flat-foot grade 1. The current study indicates a clear correlation between flat foot levels with their demographic weight variable at 0.00 and with their BMI at 0.026. A significant association between demographic variables and their footprint is therefore present.</p> Abirami P, Ushapriya Mathiazhakan, Bhuvaneswari A Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 11 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Estrogen, Progestrone Receptor and Her2/Neu Expressions incases of Breast Cancer <p>To correlate ER, PR and HER2/neu expressions with established prognostic factors viz. type of tumour, tumour size, tumour grade, tumour necrosis, lymphovascular invasion (tumor emboli), and axillary lymph node metastasis status. To correlate immunehistochemical marker status ( ER, PR and HER2/neu) with clinical details (age and sex) of patients. The investigative research of Progesterone receptor (PR), Estrogen receptor (ER), as well as HER-2/neu expressions in cases of developing breast carcinoma was carried out over a period of 2 years from June 2015 to May 2017 which included 101 breast cancer cases. Palpable breast lump with or without pain were most frequent complaints. Maximum number of breast cancer cases revealed involvement of left breast. It was found that ER and PR expression was strongly correlated. No significant association was found between the presence of ER, PR expression as well as the size of the tumor. ER and PR negativity was associated with breast carcinoma cases having axillary lymph node metastasis. Out of 101 breast cancer cases tumor necrosis was present in 38.61%. However, the occurrence or absence of tumour necrosis in ER, PR expression was not strongly linked. Tumor emboli were noted in 31.68% of cases. In case of breast cancer with tumor emboli decreased ER and PR expression was observed.</p> Mahendra M Patil, Pawar S J, Rohit S Kadam, Atul B Hulwan, Mahendra Alate, Dhirajkumar Mane Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 18 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Contraception in Rural Area of Vidarbha <p>Knowledge of use of contraceptives is necessary to prevent unwanted pregnancies and for optimal spacing, especially when it comes to rural populace. It is essential to create awareness and educate them regarding the proper usage of contraceptives and facilitate their usage. Family planning has two main objectives; firstly, to have only the desired number of children and secondly, proper spacing of pregnancies. India has undergone fertility transition and important feature of this transition is the fact that contraceptive use has spread to even uneducated women. Family planning is widely discussed topic on the national stage, with lot of government machinery to help implement it, yet there exist lot of disparity in its execution. In our study, the knowledge of contraception was upto 60%, while its acceptance was seen in 50% of the population, knowledge of contraceptives was very much likened to the level of education the populace has received as well as due to efforts of mother and child health and family planning services in the rural area, lack of use contraceptives was mainly attributed to fear of side-effects, which were mainly due to hearsay. Our study highlights the fact that even though our study was based in rural area, it involved women belonging to all stratas of society, and women had more predilection towards temporary methods of contraception rather than going for permanent contraception. It is concluded from the present study that 60% women had knowledge and were aware of the contraceptives but lacking information about their availability at health care centers.</p> Asawari Deo, Deepti Shrivastava, Sonali Chauhan Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 18 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of the Administration of Salam Leaf Ethanol Extract on IL-6 and IL-4 on Benzene-Induced Brain Networks of Rats <p>Benzene is poisonous to the human body and has been linked to neuro-toxic and neurodegenerative illnesses. Bay leaf is extremely safe to consume because it has been shown in experimental animals to have no toxic, teratogenic, or genotoxic effects and to have a strong antioxidant effect. The purpose of this study is to assess the neuroprotective impact of an ethanolic extract of bay leaf on rats exposed to benzene. The study was divided into 11 groups: group 1 was assigned to a control condition, groups 2 and 3 were assigned to negative controls, groups 4 and 5 were assigned to positive controls, and groups 6-11 were assigned to receive an ethanol extract of bay leaf. For 21 days, benzene was injected intraperitoneally every three and six days and the extract was delivered orally. On day 22, rats were sedated and their brains were collected and examined for IL-4 and IL-6 levels using an Elisa kit and a 450 nm microplate reader. The results indicated that the levels of IL-4 and IL-6 increased statistically substantially in rats given just benzene (p0.05), whereas they decreased in animals given the highest extract, 800 mg/kg BW. The levels of IL-4 and IL-6 were not statistically significantly different from those in the normal group (p&gt;0.05). Thus, it can be inferred that the ethanolic extract of bay leaves has a neuroprotective effect due to the presence of flavonoids that contribute to the prevention of inflammation caused by benzene exposure.</p> Murni Syahyati Gultom, Chrismis Novalinda Ginting, Linda Chiuman, Steven Theo Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 18 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis and Characterization of CSNP-SiO₂ nanocomposite by using antibacterial activity <p>Because of its promising biological achievements, the development of nanotechnology, nanoparticle-based products, and their applications has piqued the interest of many researchers. Inorganic nanomaterials, on the other hand, are well known to be effective antimicrobial agents. Metal nanoparticles, such as Silicon dioxide, are particularly important among the various nanoparticles due to their low cost and ease of availability. Chitosan is a biopolymer derived from chitin, a natural polysaccharide that follows cellulose as the second most abundant polysaccharide. The Precipitation Method was used to create a Chitosan Nanoparticle with SiO<sub>2</sub> Nanocomposite (CSNP - SiO<sub>2</sub> nanocomposite). TGA, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, PSA, UV, and FL were used to characterize the Chitosan Nanoparticle with SiO<sub>2</sub> Nanocomposite. The findings showed that bio-nanocomposites have a greater antibacterial effect due to the combined effect of CS and nanoparticles (NPs). Chitosan/SiO<sub>2</sub> nanocomposites were tested for antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. The goal was to assess their physical, mechanical, and biological properties, as well as their potential for biomedical applications.</p> Rajaduraipandian Subramanian, Amutha Eswaran, Gandhimathi Sivasubramanian, Annadurai Gurusamy Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 19 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Homology modelling and molecular docking study of TMPRSS2 with small-molecule protease inhibitors to control SARS-CoV-2 <p>Due to the urgent need of drugs to control the COVID-19 pandemic, repositioning of already marketed drugs could be a fast and convenient option&nbsp; to identify agents to aid in controlling and treating COVID-19. This work presented a computational work regarding homology modeling and molecular docking of repurposing drugs related to the SARS-CoV-2. We have created a homology model of the cell surface transmembrane protease serine 2 protein (TMPRSS2) in order to investigate and analyze the interactions of already known small-molecules. This study indicates the most active inhibitors, poceprevir, simeprevir and neoandrgrapholide, that can be used further to search for better TMPRSS2 inhibitors.&nbsp; Moreover,&nbsp; we analyzed&nbsp; the most important atomistic connections between these compounds and the modeled protein pockets. This study will focus on TMPRSS2-targeted drugs by comparing the binding mode of approved and experimentally used TMRSS2 inhibitors with other agents with TMPRSS2 inhibitory activity and could potentially inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and therefore could lead to the identification of new agents for further clinical evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 and potential treatment of COVID-19.</p> Salha M Tawati, Aisha A Alsfouk, Asma Alsarrah Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 19 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness and current knowledge of women on breast cancer in Hyderabad, Telangana State <p>The purpose of the present study is to accomplish research objectives that are to assess the effectiveness of an awareness program on knowledge and attitude regarding breast cancer and screening technique among women. 105 women were selected living in the Hyderabad district, Telangana state, selected for the study by Simple random sampling technique between 13-70 years. Appropriate data collection is the most important and central part of any investigation, which provides necessary data for the study. We made a standard Structured knowledge questionnaire and attitudes scale containing 57 questions to assess women knowledge and attitude regarding breast cancer. The most significant and important part of any exploration is gathering significant data, which will give the information expected to respond to the inquiries brought up in the survey. We made a standard Structured information Questionnaire, and a disposition like a scale containing 57 inquiries was utilized to evaluate the information and demeanor of women with respect&nbsp; to malignant breast growth. We designed and developed an Informational booklet on knowledge and attitude regarding breast cancer and screening technique after pre-test knowledge and lacking attitude areas like Objectives, Breast Structure, Types of Cancer and Causes of Breast Cancer, Risk factors, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Screening of breast cancer, Clinical Breast Examination, Mammography and Treatment. After data collection, analysis was done to determine the association between selected variables, computing co-efficient of correlation to find the relation between knowledge scores and attitude scores.</p> Shilpa Ch., Mahesh Kumar V. P., Madhukar A. Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 19 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 In OVO Assessment of Antiviral Potential of Aloe Barbadensis Miller against Newcastle Disease Virus <p>The antiviral potential of <em>Aloe barbadensis </em>Miller against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) was determined using 11-day old embryonated chicken eggs. Identification and harvesting of <em>Aloe barbadensis </em>Miller plant were done at Federal College of Forestry, Jos while laboratory assay was done at the Bio- chemistry and Viral Research Divisions of National Veterinary Research Institute Vom. Extraction and phytochemical analysis of plant extract was done using distilled water, acetone, ethanol and chloroform, while cytotoxicity studies, determination of EID<sub>50</sub> as well as antiviral assay were carried out according to standard methods. Results obtained indicated that distilled water is the best solvent for extraction of <em>Aloe barbadensis </em>Miller in terms of quantity and quality of products. This is because it turned in the highest yield of extract and also retained most pharmacologically active substances, as shown by phytochemical studies. Cytotoxicity studies, on the other hand, showed that embryonated eggs could tolerate the plant extract at concentrations of 200mg/ml and below, while antiviral assay clearly revealed inhibition of virus multiplication in embryonated eggs in extract concentrations as low as 100mg/ml and above. It, therefore, implies that the <em>Aloe barbadensis </em>Miller plant can be extracted in distilled water and administered to birds infected with NDV at recommended dosage to effectively treat Newcastle Disease.</p> Solomon Chuwang Chollom, Michael Unata Iduh, Kim Jerry Bot, Daniel Zanyu Egah, Surajudeen A. Junaid Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 02 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Preparation, Characterization and Stability Study of Oral Reconstitutable Suspension of Amoxicillin and Potassium Clavulanate <p>To overcome the problem of bitter taste, degradation, and sedimentation, reconstitutable suspension of Amoxicillin and Potassium Clavulanate was prepared. The suspension was prepared by using two different formulations. The suspensions were characterized for micromeritic studies such as bulk density, tap density, Car’s index, angle of repose, pH, and viscosity. The HPLC assay was performed for the quantitative determination of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate potassium from suspension. The accelerated stability study was carried out to predict the stability profile of a drug product. Formulated reconstitutable suspension of Amoxicillin and Potassium Clavulanate has IPQC properties. From the results, it is concluded that reconstitutable suspension was successfully prepared and evaluated.</p> Pranit P Atpadikar, Amol S Sherikar, Mahanthesh M C, Disouza J I Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A successful RH ISO immunization in pregnancy and perinatal outcome <p>RH ISO immunization is a major cause of severe hemolytic Anemia in newborns and poor perinatal outcomes. Nowadays, the rate of isoimmunization is rising so careful monitoring and follow up is required in the mother to improve the perinatal mortality. A case of multigravida, Rh iso immunized with titre value of 1:8 ago; this case defines how the perinatal outcome with this level of titre value and the events of a baby after immediate delivery. Rh isoimmunization is diagnosed with Doppler ultrasound to calculate the MOM VALUE, if &gt;1.5, then it needs an immediate termination, exchange transfusion, IVIG and double light phototherapy are the options in the treatment in Fetal Anemia. Advantages of IVIG use before transfusion case reports show a reduction in the transfusion rate and phototherapy. This case report showed the successful RH isoimmunization in pregnancy with an ICT titre of 1:8 and the related perinatal outcome. PSV AND MSV Doppler which is a noninvasive test which is used to benefit the Rh isoimmunization patient; however, if the mom is within normal limits, we can be able to prolong the pregnancy, or we might know when the ideal time is to terminate the pregnancy along with Doppler nowadays if titre of more than 1:32, IVIG is also one good option to eliminate the repeated exchange transfusions and phototherapy for the baby.</p> Hepsibah Kirubamani, Pavithra Baskaran, Nasreen Banu M. Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000