International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences <p align="justify">International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJRPS) ISSN: 0975-7538 sponsored by JK Welfare &amp; Pharmascope Foundation is established in the year 2009 with people from various avenues of the pharmacy profession. IJRPS is completely devoted to publications related to Pharmaceuticals and Health Sciences. IJRPS will be published quarterly. The journal publishes original research work that contributes significantly to further the scientific knowledge in Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences.</p> en-US (Editor) (Managing Editor) Fri, 07 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Synthesis and In vitro Testing of Novel Quinoline Derivatives and for Cancer Cells <p>Quinoline and its derivatives represent an important class of nitrogen containing heterocycles because they are useful intermediates in organic synthesis and biological activities such as antiasthmatic, anti-inflammatory, anti- cancer, and antimalarial activity. A quinoline containing eight compounds was successfully synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral analysis. Therefore, the synthesis of new quinoline derivatives with strong pharmacological activity is important in medicine. There is significant research focused on the development of new quinoline-based structures and new methods of synthesis. In this research study, new quinoline derivatives were synthesized and the synthesized compounds were characterized by several spectroscopic techniques, the biological activity of these compounds was evaluated using lung cancer cell lines and molecular modeling in an enzymatic system. The synthesized eight new compounds were tested for their potential activity in lung cancer cell lines. Eight synthesized compounds (K1- K8) were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities. The anticancer test showed that the quinoline compounds K2, K3 and K4 show good anticancer activity. Among them, K2 and K4 were shown to be dose-dependent, with K4 having the highest toxicity at 250 <em>µ</em>M and K8 having the highest toxicity at 125, 250, and 500 <em>µ</em>M, while K1, K2, K5, K6, and K7 were not cytotoxic.</p> Kuldeep Singh Patel, Richa Dubey, Archana Singh Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 07 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Pregnancy with A Sick Heart <p>Sick sinus syndrome (SSS) refers to a collection of cardiac arrhythmias associated with dysfunction of the sinoatrial node that commonly leads to disorders in cardiac rhythm and conduction. Mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of sinus node dysfunction in SSS patients still appear unclear since degenerative fibrosis of nodal tissue has been the closest pathology associated but it is noteworthy to mention the occurrence of this condition in the younger population as well. Manifestations of this disease can be diverse with being totally asymptomatic to vague symptoms like bradyarrhythmia, tachyarrhythmia, syncope, palpitations and dizziness. Diagnosis can be quite difficult due to the stated diverse symptoms. Definite treatment is the replacement of a defective pacemaker with a synthetic pacemaker. Pregnancy with underlying heart disease should be carefully monitored and managed. However, pregnancy after surgical correction of underlying cardiac anomaly has shown a good prognosis in recent years due to the availability of various improved surgical techniques. Below is a depiction of how pregnancy with a prosthetic valve was managed effectively by a multidisciplinary approach that yielded a good outcome.</p> Shajni Krishna G M, Rupal Sipani, Nidhi Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 07 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A comparative study of neurobehavioral changes induced by rotenone through oral and intraperitoneal administration <p>Parkinson’s disease is one of the major neurological disorders seen worldwide and associated with many motor and nonmotor symptoms. Rotenone-induced motor and behavior impairments could involve the gut-brain axis which is emphasized in several recent works. To explore how oral and intraperitoneal rotenone toxicity impacts neurobehavioral alterations in Wistar rats. The effect of intraperitoneal (3 mg/kg body weight 21 days) and oral (50 mg/kg body weight for 28 days) rotenone toxicity in male Wistar rats on various neurobehavioral parameters viz., rotarod, actophotometer, rearing behavior and elevated plus maze was comparatively studied. The neurobehavioral studies such as the Rota-rod test, rearing behavior, Elevated plus maze (EPM), and Actophotometer were performed by following standard published protocols and by utilizing the facilities available at the Institution. Kruskal-Wallis one- way ANOVA on ranks with Student-Newman-Keul’s multiple comparisons was used. It was found that both oral and intraperitoneal rotenone treatments had a significant impact on neurobehavioral parameters when compared to their respective controls. Although there were few differences observed in the study set behavioral parameters between intraperitoneal and oral rotenone treatments, it was not significant. The study findings suggest that neurobehavioral alterations caused by oral or intraperitoneal rotenone toxicity are found to be significant. The fact that oral rotenone toxicity has gut-brain axis- related problems can also have a role in PD-related motor/movement and anxiety behavior dysfunctions.</p> Suchitra Kavuri, Senthilkumar Sivanesan Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 05 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Formulation and Evaluation of Ketoconazole Microsponge Topical Gel <p>Microsponges are those drug delivery systems which are intended in a way to deliver a minimum dose of the drug or pharmaceutically active ingredient to increase the stability of formulation, to alter drug release profile. Ketoconazole is an imidazole anti-fungal agent&nbsp; belonging to BCS class II. The main objective of this research work is to formulate and evaluate ketoconazole microsponge for topical&nbsp; delivery by using various polymers such eudragit S-100, eudragit L-100 in four ratios 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 by quasi emulsion method. The&nbsp; formulations prepared were labelled based on the ratios as ES 2. ES 3, ES 4, ES 5 for eudragit S-100 and EL 2, EL 3, EL 4, EL 5 for eudragit L-100. Evaluation tests like entrapment efficiency, production yield, drug content was performed and formulation of eudragit L-100 (EL 5) and eudragit S-100 (ES 5) showed better results. ES 5 and EL 5 formulations were optimized and tests like <em>in vitro</em> dissolution studies&nbsp; were conducted which showed that the formulation ES 5 showed released upto 8 hours and can be used in the formulation of gel. The&nbsp; gel (GES5) was prepared by usingmicrosponges containing the drug ketoconazole equivalent to 1 % w/w and was incorporated into&nbsp; the gel base made up of Carbopol 934. The microsponges were sieved and were dispersed in Carbopol gel. Evaluation tests like pH&nbsp; measurement, visual inspection, spreadability studies, drug content and <em>in vitro</em> diffusion studies. This method of formulating&nbsp; microsponges has improved drug delivery therefore helping in the enhancement of the bioavailability of the drug and also acts as an efficient carrier through the skin.</p> Joshna Booravilli, Janaki Devi Sirisolla, Shivani Saluru Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 17 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Patient perspective regarding late termination of pregnancy at a tertiary care hospital <p>To arrive at an understanding about the view and attitudes of pregnant women regarding late termination of pregnancy after prenatal&nbsp; diagnosis of a severe fetal anomaly. A semi-structured questionnaire based prospective descriptive study was conducted from January&nbsp; 2022 to September 2022 in Obstetrics and Gynecology department of Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, Thandalam. 16 pregnant&nbsp; women with severe fetal anomalies detected after 23 weeks were included. All the women were counselled about the type and lethality of the anomaly including management option. Informed consent was obtained from all the patients and ethical approval was obtained. A total of 16 women with congenital anomalies in fetus detected after 23 weeks of gestation over 8 months of the study period were&nbsp; included in the study. All the participants were properly counselled and given adequate time to make the decision. Among which 11&nbsp; decided to terminate the pregnancy and 5 continued. All 11 who opted for termination of pregnancy was joint decision by the family. 5&nbsp; women continued their pregnancy. Reasons to continue the pregnancy were praying that baby will born normal (n=1), hoping that&nbsp; surgery can correct the abnormality (n=3) and wanting to see the baby (n=1). This study shows that women who are pregnant with&nbsp; serious fetal anomalies have a range of opinions and attitudes regarding termination. To compare with initial decision making larger&nbsp; follow-up studies will be necessary to see whether patient’s perspective changes over time.&nbsp;</p> Archana Kumari, Hephzibah Kirubamani N., Vaanathi Ramu Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Biological Synthesis and Characterisation of Silver Nanoparticles of Zingiber officinalis and Evaluation of its Biological Activity <p>Ginger <em>(Zingiber officinale) </em>belongs to Zingiberaceae family is one of the famous spices all over the world. It is a perennial creeping plant with long leaves, yellow green flowers and thick tuberous rhizome. Silver nanoparticles’ potential uses in Green Chemistry have received attention. The current study focuses on the rapid biological production of silver nanoparticles using different plant materials and characterizations using UV-visible spectrophotometry, IR, SEM, and HPLC investigations. Within 15 minutes of adding sodium carbonate, an aqueous extract of dried Zingiber officinalis rhizome reduces silver nitrate. No further reduction and stabilizing chemicals are required for the entire process, showing a green synthesis. Escherichia coli and <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>use biosynthesized “Zinger-AgNps” as a competent antibacterial agent. Zinger-AgNps were evaluated as its catalytic capability to reduce the model pollutant methylene blue. Both of them are displayed 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-specific free radical scavenging activity (DPPH). Silver biological material nanoparticles are created by utilizing less hazardous and nontoxic reduction agents, such as ascorbic acid and sodium citrate. The antioxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibition properties of ginger prevent peroxidative damage, indicating the benefits of ginger in the prevention of microbial food spoilage, free-radical-induced damage and rancidity. The sodium citrate aggregation for silver nanoparticles, firm surface contact, and synthesized silver nanoparticles are used to study antibacterial efficacy and antioxidant activity.</p> Swapna B., Chandrasekhar K B, Madhuri D., Sumathi G. Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 03 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 High Fat Diet and Low Dose Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Dyslipidaemia and Hepatic Damage in Rats <p>The objective of the present study was to validate a rat model of diabetic dyslipidaemia along with hepatic damage by High fat diet and low dose streptozotocin combination that resembles the natural history of metabolic syndrome in humans. Male and Female <em>Sprague Dawley </em>rats were divided into 2 groups. One group of rats fed with high fat diet and other group was fed with normal pellet diet for a period of 2 weeks followed by streptozotocin administration on 15<sup><em>th </em></sup>day. Body weight of the animals was measured on day 0, 14 and 21, also post 1 week of the streptozotocin administration the blood glucose, serum lipid, liver, kidney markers and insulin levels were measured. The high fat diet fed animals had exhibited a significant increase in body weight post two weeks of HFD feeding, but the body weight was reduced post 1 week of streptozotocin intervention due to metabolic disruption caused by STZ. The HFD group animals exhibited significant increase in blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL. Similarly, a significant decrease in HDL and serum insulin levels were observed as compared to the NPD fed animals. Further the HFD group animals had shown significant elevation of the liver function enzymes such as ALT and ALP levels as compared to the NPD fed animals. The present study confirms the experimental induction of diabetic dyslipidaemia along with hepatic damage which serves as an ideal model for metabolic syndrome along with hepatic cirrhosis which would useful for evaluating the therapeutic agents against type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and hepatic cirrhosis.</p> Viswanth Reddy S., Sudesh N Gaidhani, Srikanth Ala, Sanjaya Kumar Y R, Sudhakar D., Subrahmanyam K. Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 03 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Drug Utilization Review of Antibiotics in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients and Comparison with the Standard Drug of Choice <p>The risk of morbidity and death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), formerly known as chronic renal failure (CRF), is increased by a number of comorbidities, including infections, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and anaemia. The second most common reason for death in this population is infections. Antibiotics can accumulate in the body and have harmful consequences when given to CKD patients without the necessary dosage modification and in an illogical manner. The purpose of this particular study was to compare the standard treatment protocol with the reasoning and prescribing patterns of antibiotics administered for infections in CKD patients staged 3-5 in the nephrology department of a single Center in Kerala’s Kottayam district. The medical records of 272 patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were admitted to the nephrology department between November 2019 and November 2020 were examined as part of single-centred retrospective research that was created to address this. Surprisingly, just 45 percent of the prescriptions were rational, while 55 percent of them were nonsensical. Additionally, we discovered that 23 percent of antibiotic selections went outside accepted therapeutic standards. Thus, we could conclude that the prescriber must use the utmost caution while prescribing to a patient with CKD to prevent future difficulties.</p> Nevin Joseph, Alfin Baby, Shaniya Thomas, Jobin Kunjumon Vilapurathu Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 07 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Review on Biosurfactants <p>Biosurfactants are produced by different microorganisms like bacteria, algae, fungi on to the cell surface. They are amphipathic in nature which helps them to aggregate at the interfaces, thereby reducing the surface tension. They are characterized by the molecular weight into two i.e.&nbsp; low molecular and high molecular. According to the different biomolecule such as protein, carbohydrate moiety attached, they have distinct and different structures which provide them different functions and applications in different fields. In this present review, the relationship among microorganism, biosurfactant and hydrocarbon has been described and the different applications in various industries have also been explained.</p> Jaysree R C, Rajendran N Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 07 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Management of Diabetes Mellitus to Improve the Quality Life of Patients <p>Diabetes is non-communicable disorder that is often a result of change in lifestyle or genetic variations among individuals across the globe. Diabetes&nbsp; is a fatal condition and it is an unpredictable disorder hence it is regarded&nbsp; as a tragedy, painful, horrible and terrifying disorder. This is why this article is intended to call out readers, researchers and scientists to do whatever could be done to prevent, withstand, overcome or cure diabetes particularly type 2 which is mostly found widely. Although the cure of diabetes has not yet been found, the goal is to be able to alter diabetic patient perceptive about the disorder so that they can bear the disorder as a part of who they are bravely, instead of being affected by the disorder condition, and to gradually alert patient awareness will improve patient disorder state, tolerance and acceptance while science and technology are advancing to find the cure or vaccine. Since this chronic disorder have no cure or vaccine, the patient suffers a lot from not only health problems but also psychological, emotional and financial problems therefore it is essential to develop strength within diabetic patients to withstand the disorder state via treatment, surgery, yoga, meditation, exercise, nutrition and habitual changes. Elevating diabetic mellitus patient’s attitude, knowledge, self-acceptance and strength will result into better patient compliance toward the treatment but also society’s perceptive will be enhanced by care toward diabetic mellitus patients, through various seminars and Counselling.</p> Akimana Cedrick, Janaki Devi Sirisolla, Joshna Booravilli, Shubham Yadav Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 05 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000