Histological and Physiological assessment of Endothelin-1 and Cholesterol in breast cancer of women


  • Hussein I. H. Al-Azzawi Department of Biology, College of Education for pure sciences, Tikrit university, Iraq
  • Zaid M. M. Almahdawi Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Tikrit university, Iraq
  • Ayad H. Ibrahim Department of Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Tikrit university, Iraq
  • Wieeam A. Saleh Department of Laboratory, Teaching Oncology Hospital - Medical City, Ministry of Health, Baghdad, Iraq




The current study included two aspects, one of which is histological and the other physiological. It included (75) blood samples from women with breast cancer, in addition to (15) blood samples for healthy women as control, in addition to collecting tissue biopsy from the mammary glands of some women whose blood samples were drawn Including them in advance. Those diagnosed with breast cancer and ages ranged between 38-68 years, where the study was conducted from 1 May 2019 to 2 October 2019. Gland tissue and the owner of those tumours swelling of the axillary lymph nodes. Another cancer that was found was papillary carcinoma, where epithelial hyperplasia appeared in the form of large papillae that filled the cavity of the gland. There is a large number of white blood cells and severe hematoma. Another type  of gland cancer discovered is cribriform carcinoma, which is a rare case. Invasive cancer is the most dangerous, as it is observed in the glandular tissue with the presence of agglutination and crowding of tumour cells and tumour cysts. The study also showed haematological changes characterized by a highly significant concentration of Endothelin-1 (P ≤ 0.01) in the blood of women with breast cancer group 5 and group 4, compared to the control group as a usual case. At the same time, there was a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the con- centration of Endothelin-1 in infected women in groups 3, 2 and 6 compared to the control group. The study showed a very significant decrease (P ≤ 0.01) in the cholesterol concentration of women with breast cancer of group 5, and group 6 compared to the control group, while its level decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in-group 4 compared to the control group. 


Breast Cancer, Endothelin-1, Cholesterol


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How to Cite

Hussein I. H. Al-Azzawi, Zaid M. M. Almahdawi, Ayad H. Ibrahim, & Wieeam A. Saleh. (2022). Histological and Physiological assessment of Endothelin-1 and Cholesterol in breast cancer of women. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 13(2), 150–161. https://doi.org/10.26452/ijrps.v13i2.94



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