In OVO Assessment of Antiviral Potential of Aloe Barbadensis Miller against Newcastle Disease Virus


  • Solomon Chuwang Chollom Virology Research Department, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria
  • Michael Unata Iduh Department of Medical Microbiology, Usmanu Danfodio University, Sokoto, Nigeria
  • Kim Jerry Bot Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Bingham University, Karu, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
  • Daniel Zanyu Egah College of Medical Sciences, Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria
  • Surajudeen A. Junaid Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine, Federal University Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria



The antiviral potential of Aloe barbadensis Miller against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) was determined using 11-day old embryonated chicken eggs. Identification and harvesting of Aloe barbadensis Miller plant were done at Federal College of Forestry, Jos while laboratory assay was done at the Bio- chemistry and Viral Research Divisions of National Veterinary Research Institute Vom. Extraction and phytochemical analysis of plant extract was done using distilled water, acetone, ethanol and chloroform, while cytotoxicity studies, determination of EID50 as well as antiviral assay were carried out according to standard methods. Results obtained indicated that distilled water is the best solvent for extraction of Aloe barbadensis Miller in terms of quantity and quality of products. This is because it turned in the highest yield of extract and also retained most pharmacologically active substances, as shown by phytochemical studies. Cytotoxicity studies, on the other hand, showed that embryonated eggs could tolerate the plant extract at concentrations of 200mg/ml and below, while antiviral assay clearly revealed inhibition of virus multiplication in embryonated eggs in extract concentrations as low as 100mg/ml and above. It, therefore, implies that the Aloe barbadensis Miller plant can  be extracted in distilled water and administered to birds infected with NDV at recommended dosage to effectively treat Newcastle Disease.


Aloe barbadensis Miller, Newcastle Disease Virus, antiviral assay


Download data is not yet available.


M Rehan, A Aslam, M R Khan, M Abid, S Hussain, J Amber, A Anjum, and A Hussain. The potential economic impact of Newcastle disease virus isolated from wild birds on commercial poultry industry of Pakistan: A review. Host and Viruses, 6(1):1–15, 2019.

Z U Rehman, S Ren, and B Yang. Newcastle disease virus induces testicular damage and disrupts steroidogenesis in specific pathogen free roosters. Veterinary Research, 51(1):84, 2020.

M Getabalew, T Alemneh, D Akeberegn, D Getahun, and D Zewdie. Epidemiology, Diagnosis & Prevention of Newcastle Disease in Poultry. American Journal of Biomedical Science & Research, 3(1):50–59, 2019.

N L Hines and C L Miller. Avian paramyxovirus serotype-1: A review of disease distribution, clinical symptoms, and laboratory diagnostics. Veterinary Medicine International, 1(11), 2012. Article ID 708216.

OIE. Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals: Mammals, Birds and Bees, Biological Standards Commission. World Organization for Animal Health, Paris, pages 1– 19, 2012. Office International des Epizooties (OIE).

A Jadhav, L Zhao, A Ledda, W Liu, C Ding, V Nair, and L Ferretti. Patterns of RNA Editing in Newcastle Disease Virus Infections. Viruses, 12(11):1249–1249, 2020.

P Gogoi, K Ganar, and S Kumar. Avian Paramyxovirus: A Brief Review. Transboundary Emerging Disease, 64(1):53–67, 2017.

Hafez M Hafez and Youssef A Attia. Challenges to the Poultry Industry: Current Perspectives and Strategic Future After the COVID-19 Outbreak. Frontiers of Veterinary Science, 7:516, 2020.

A E Absalón, D V Cortés-Espinosa, Lucio E, P J Miller, and C L Afonso. Epidemiology, control, and prevention of Newcastle disease in endemic regions: Latin America. Tropical Animal Health & Production, 51(5):1033–1048, 2019.

H O Abah, P A Abdu, and A Assam. Assessment of biosecurity measures against Newcastle disease in commercial poultry farms in Benue state, Nigeria. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 15(3):32–32, 2017.

O K Chota and N Ngongolo. Knowledge on diseases, practices, and threats of drugs residues in chicken food chains in selected districts of Dodoma region, Tanzania. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 30(4):100186, 2021.

Q Su, Y Li, and Y Zhang. Newcastle disease virus-attenuated vaccine LaSota played a key role in the pathogenicity of the contaminated exogenous virus. Veterinary Research, 49, 2018. 80.

M Sarcheshmei, H Dadras, N Mosleh, and M J Mehrabanpour. Comparative evaluation of the protective efficacy of different vaccination programs against a virulent field strain of the Newcastle disease virus in broilers. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 18(03), 2016.

A Emecheta, A Ike, C Onu, C Eze, and C Olovo. The benefits of supplementation with antibiotic alternatives on Newcastle disease virus titres in poultry. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 74(4):665–674, 2018.

Y Mehdi, M P Letourneau-Montminy, M L Gaucer, Y Chorfi, G Surech, T Rouissi, S K Brar, C Cote, A A Ramirez, and S Godbout. Use of antibiotics in broiler production: Global impacts and alternatives. Animal Nutrition, 4(2):170–178, 2018.

R Elizondo-Gonzalez, L E Cruz-Suarez, and D Ricque-Marie. In vitro characterization of the antiviral activity of fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus against Newcastle Disease Virus. Virology Journal, 9, 2012. 307.

F Antony, Y Vashi, S Morla, Vandna, H Mohan, and S Kumar. Therapeutic potential of Nitazoxanide against Newcastle disease virus: A possible modulation of host cytokines. Cytokine, 131, 2020. 155115.

S C Chollom, Goa Agada, J G Gotep, S E Mwankon, P C Dus, Y S Bot, D Y Nyango, C L Singnap, E J Fyaktu, and Aej Okwori. Investigation of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam Seed for Antiviral Activity Against New-castle Disease Virus in ovo. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6(22):3870–3875, 2012.

Z Sun, C Yu, and W Wang. Aloe Polysaccharides Inhibit Influenza A Virus Infection-A Promising Natural Anti-flu Drug. Frontiers of Microbiology, 9:2338, 2018.

A Yagi, M Hasegawa, and S Ataka. Beneficial Efficacy of Aloe Vera to Viral Infections: Case Reports of Kampo Medicine With Aloe Vera Juice. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research, 9(4), 2020.

E Gansukh, J Gopal, and D Paul. Ultrasound mediated accelerated Anti-influenza activity of Aloe vera. Scientific Reports, 8, 2018. 17782.

L O Okitoi, H O Ondwasy, D N Siamba, and D Nkurumah. A handbook of traditional herbal preparations for indigenous poultry health management in western Kenya . Livestock Research for Rural Development, 19(5), 2007.

K Adams, T Eliot, and A Gerald. Extent of Use of Aloe vera Locally Extracted Products for Management of Ailments in Communities of Kitagata Sub-county in Sheema District, Western Uganda. International Journal Science of Basic & Applied Research, 15(1):1–15, 2014.

N Haider. Identification of Plant Species using Traditional and Molecular-based Methods. Wild Plants: Identification, Uses and Conservation, pages 1–62, 2011. Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

A R Abubakar and M Haque. Preparation of Medicinal Plants: Basic Extraction and Fractionation Procedures for Experimental Purposes. Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences, 12(1):1–10, 2020.

Q W Zhang, L G Lin, and W C Ye. Techniques for extraction and isolation of natural products: a comprehensive review. Chinese Medicine Journal, 13, 2018. 20.

M Young, R Alders, S Grimes, P Spradbrow, P Dias, A Da Silva, and Q Lobo. Controlling Newcastle disease in village chickens: A laboratory manual ACIAR monograph. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, pages 1–142, 2002. ISBN: 1 86320 365 6 X.

Graves. Agglutination-separation reactions of red blood cells sensitized with Newcastle disease virus: quantities, agglutination characteristics, and serology of altered virus and HN spikes released following neuraminidase reactivation. Veterinary Research, 32(5):475–489, 2001.

Y Murakawa, K Sakaguchi, K Soejima, S Eriguchi, K Takase, M Sueyoshi, H Nagatomo, T Ito, and K Otuski. The haemagglutinating activity of the lentogenic Newcastle disease virus strain MET95. Avian Pathology, 32(1):39–45, 2003.

G Cattoli, L Susta, C Terregino, and C Brown. Newcastle disease: a review of field recognition and current methods of laboratory detection. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 23(4):637–656, 2011.

M Mayo. A summary of taxonomic changes recently approved by ICTV. Archives of Virology, 147(8):1655–1663, 2002.

A R Yasmin, S L Chia, Q H Looi, A R Omar, M M Noordin, and A Ideris. Herbal extracts as antiviral agents. Feed Additives, pages 115– 132, 2020.

A Yates. Decentralization in pollution permit markets. Journal of Public Economic Theory, 4(4):641–660, 2002.

M Khanal, S Lamichane, A Bhattarai, B L Kayastha, and S N Labh. Extract of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) enhances the growth, protein content and gastrosomatic index (GaSI) of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, (14):2021–2021, 2021. Article ID: 8029413.

L Baroni, L Cenci, M Tettamanti, and M Berati. Evaluating the environmental impact of various dietary patterns combined with different food production systems. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61:279–286, 2007.

Z Jiang, C Kempinski, and J Chappell. Extraction and Analysis of Terpenes/Terpenoids. Current Protocols in Plant Biology, 1:345–358, 2016.

I A Myles. Fast food fever: reviewing the impacts of the Western diet on immunity. Nutrition Journal, 13(61), 2014.

M T Heise. Viral Pathogenesis. Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences, 2014.

H L Ferreira, T L Taylor, K M Dimitrov, M Sabra, C L Afonso, and D L Suarez. Virulent New-castle disease viruses from the chicken origin are more pathogenic and transmissible to chickens than viruses normally maintained in wild birds. Veterinary Microbiology, 235:25– 34, 2019.

A Surjushe, R Vasani, and D. G. Saple. Aloe vera: A short review. Indian Journal of Dermatology, 53(4):163–166, 2008.



How to Cite

Solomon Chuwang Chollom, Michael Unata Iduh, Kim Jerry Bot, Daniel Zanyu Egah, & Surajudeen A. Junaid. (2022). In OVO Assessment of Antiviral Potential of Aloe Barbadensis Miller against Newcastle Disease Virus. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 13(2), 222–230.



Original Articles