Current update on COVID-19 vaccines


  • Abisri Suresh Department of Pharmacy Practice, Karavali College of Pharmacy, Mangalore - 575028, Karnataka, India
  • Amal Mathew Department of Pharmacy Practice, Karavali College of Pharmacy, Mangalore - 575028, Karnataka, India
  • Narottam Tiwari Department of Pharmacy Practice, Karavali College of Pharmacy, Mangalore - 575028, Karnataka, India
  • Noah M Bose Department of Pharmacy Practice, Karavali College of Pharmacy, Mangalore - 575028, Karnataka, India


Novel Coronavirus, also known as SARS-CoV-2, is an infectious disease that primarily affects the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. The viral spread occurs through respiratory droplets produced while coughing and sneezing. Major vaccine targets for COVID-19 are spike protein, M protein, envelope protein, receptor binding domain, nucleic acids etc. Different mechanisms through which a vaccine can be developed to evoke an immune response include virus inactivated vaccine, live attenuated vaccine, subunit vaccines, virus-like particles, replicating and non-replicating viral vectors and nucleic acid-based vaccines. The mainstay of COVID-19 treatment is supportive and symptomatic therapy with dexamethasone, hydroxychlorquine and anti-viral agents like Darunavir, Ribavirin, Remdesivir, Interferons. Maintaining social distance, personal hygiene, use of N-95 masks aids in limiting the spread of the infection. There is a vital requirement for an ideal and potent vaccine with a favorable benefit-risk profile to evoke an immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection. There are currently 11 approved vaccines in the market of which the Pfizer/ BioNTech vaccine have produced the most efficacy (95%), followed by Moderna (94%), Sputnik (91.6%), Covaxin (90%), Janssen (90%) and Astra Zeneca (70%). Vaccine hesitancy, vaccine-related adverse reactions and the high cost of the vaccine can be a major barrier to public acceptance and global access to the vaccine.


COVID-19 Vaccines, Virology, Platform Technologies, SARS-CoV-2, Spike Protein, Vaccine Safety


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How to Cite

Abisri Suresh, Amal Mathew, Narottam Tiwari, & Noah M Bose. (2021). Current update on COVID-19 vaccines. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 12(3), 1840–1849. Retrieved from



Review Article