International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences <p align="justify"><strong>International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJRPS)</strong> ISSN: 0975-7538 sponsored by JK Welfare &amp; Pharmascope Foundation is established in the year 2009 with people from various avenues of the pharmacy profession. IJRPS is completely devoted to publications related to Pharmaceuticals and Health Sciences. IJRPS will be published quarterly. The journal publishes original research work that contributes significantly to further the scientific knowledge in Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences.</p> JK Welfare & Pharmascope Foundation en-US International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 0975-7538 A Systematic Review of Solubility Enhancement Techniques Used for BCS Class II & IV Because of their low solubility, pharmaceutical researchers encounter tremendous difficulties in creating sustainable and more soluble drugs (BCS class II). About 40% of oral dosage forms have formulation and development problems due to water insolubility. The rate of dissolving, absorption, distribution, and excretion of an active medicinal substance is determined by its solubility parameters. Based on their solubility, drugs are divided into four kinds under the BCS categorization system. BCS Class II and Class IV drugs have problems with solubility. Increasing both the bioavailability and the solubility of poorly soluble medications can be accomplished in several ways. Some techniques—like solid dispersion, solid complexation, liquisolid, hydrotropy, sonocrystallization, and self-emulsifying techniques—are commonly used for solubility augmentation. Until an orally active medication dissolves in the lining of the stomach and/or intestinal fluids, it cannot pass through the GI tract membrane and enter the bloodstream. Therefore, a medication that is insoluble in water will typically exhibit limited absorption by dissolution, and a medication that is weakly permeabilized via membranes would typically exhibit limited absorption through permeation. Consequently, improving the oral bioavailability of active substances is the focus of two areas of pharmaceutical research: (i) accelerating the process of dissolution and solubility of drugs that are poorly soluble in water, and (ii) accelerating the permeability of poorly permeable drugs. Pavankumar Dhoble Bharat Tekade Vishal Bodke Mohan Kale Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 2024-02-06 2024-02-06 15 1 1 11 10.26452/ijrps.v15i1.4658 Hypotensive Anaesthesia in Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgeries: A Systematic Review This systematic review comprehensively analyzes the literature on hypotensive anesthesia in Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgeries (FESS), crucial for treating sinonasal disorders. The anesthesia technique choice significantly influences FESS outcomes. Hypotensive anesthesia, involving controlled blood pressure reduction during surgery, garners attention for potential benefits. A database search identified relevant studies examining its efficacy, safety, and impact on intraoperative visibility, surgical time, blood loss, and postoperative outcomes. Various drugs, including inhalational agents, hypocapnia, hypercapnia, local adrenaline, fentanyl, remifentanil, esmolol, dexmedetomidine, and nitroglycerine, have been employed to minimize bleeding and enhance operative conditions. Sevoflurane is a common inhalation agent. Dexmedetomidine, with lower bolus doses, proves advantageous for visibility and achieving a MAP of 60 mm Hg swiftly. Opioids have a lower hypotensive potential, nitroglycerine lacks analgesic effects, and beta-blockers provide favorable conditions. Dexmedetomidine's prolonged analgesia correlates with improved postoperative outcomes. Limited studies explore combined drugs' efficacy or side effects. Cognitive dysfunction is a concern, with hypotension approved up to a MAP of 60 mm Hg. The technique's application extends to children, but careful patient selection is crucial, considering contraindications and comorbidities. Govindarajan A Swetha NS Govind Shaji Parthasarathy S Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 15 1 67 72 10.26452/ijrps.v15i1.4664 Comparative study of rubber band ligation versus surgical excision in the treatment of second-degree haemorrhoids Our study focused on comparing the efficacy of Rubber Band Ligation (banding), a day-care and cost-effective procedure, with conventional haemorrhoidectomy in the treatment of haemorrhoids. The study included 120 patients diagnosed through proctoscopic examination, with 60 assigned to each group. Patients were randomly selected through simple alternation for banding or haemorrhoidectomy after receiving procedural explanations and providing consent. Banding, utilizing Barron's band applicator and Hemoband suction device under local anaesthesia, demonstrated notable advantages. Comparison parameters included bleeding, pain, prolapse, and overall relief during follow-ups. Banding showed significantly lower bleeding persistence at 4 weeks compared to haemorrhoidectomy (p < 0.001). Prolapse rates were comparable between the two groups (10%). Complete relief was observed in 1.66% of patients in both groups at the first follow-up (p = 0.929). Banding resulted in moderate pain levels compared to haemorrhoidectomy. Hospital stay duration favoured banding, with 71.66% discharged in 1-3 days, while haemorrhoidectomy had longer stays (3-6 days: 26.66%, >6 days: 1.66%). In conclusion, Rubber Band Ligation emerged as a more effective and preferable method for second-degree haemorrhoids, providing better outcomes, reduced bleeding, and shorter hospital stays compared to conventional haemorrhoidectomy. Kishore D Debarath Das Lakshmana R Pravin Dhas Snigdha N Malarmannan M Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 2024-02-12 2024-02-12 15 1 59 66 10.26452/ijrps.v15i1.4663 Physicochemical and heavy metal analysis of Yavani-Sadav Churan – An Ayurvedic formulation Ayurveda is the most ancient documented healing heritage of the world that describes health management through natural products. Bhaishjya Kalpana, a branch of Ayurveda, describes details of pharmaceutical preparations of different dosage forms. Chooran kalpana is one of the solid dosage forms considered the secondary Kalpana of Kalka kalpana. In a common language, it is known as powder medicine and is used extensively in Ayurvedic treatment. For promoting Ayurveda, traditional health management introduced the term Drug standardization in the manufacturing of Ayurvedic medicine to ensure good quality medicines for the satisfaction of customers in the international market. Drug standardization is the core issue not only for Bhaishjya Kalpana but also for the entire Ayurveda health care. In the present study, Yavani–Sadav Churan was prepared and the physicochemical and Heavy metal analysis of churan is the main aim of the study. In this study, different parameters for assessment of purity, quality, and safety of Yavanisadava chooran will be carried out like organoleptic characteristics, loss on drying, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble extractives, and Alcohol soluble extractives. pH, Bulk density, Tap density, Particle size, TLC and Heavy metal analysis by AAS method etc., which contribute to a great extent for standardization. Suman Lata Sonia Dhiman Mamta Rana Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 2024-02-12 2024-02-12 15 1 32 39 10.26452/ijrps.v15i1.4661 Identification of a 2-aminothiazole framework using classical QSAR model targeting chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum is the most deadly form of human malaria. It is associated with a number of mutations in P. falciparum. Chloroquine-resistant transporter is a protein that serves as a transporter in the parasite's digesting vacuole membrane. In order to combat chloroquine-sensitive P. falciparum strains (NF54), this study employs QSAR modelling to examine possible structural alterations of 2-amino-thiazole derivatives. The traditional QSAR model was built using the PaDEL descriptor via QSARINS software. The model was found to have an internal cross-validation value of Q2loo = 0.7890 and an external validation parameter of RMSE ext = 0.6938. The predicted pIC50 values from the QSAR techniques for the case study chemicals were compared and found to be well fitted to the model and well predicted for the external set of compounds. The outcome demonstrates the value of using the suggested method in the creation of new medication candidates could fill the critical gap in scientific knowledge and open up novel possibilities for pharmaceutical development. Ravindran Karuppaiyan Anitha Gunavel Kasthuri Bai Solai Prabha Thangavelu Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 2024-02-06 2024-02-06 15 1 12 24 10.26452/ijrps.v15i1.4659 Biodiversity and Healing: Exploring the medicinal potential of wild edible plants abundant in antioxidants Wild edible plants (WEPs) are rich in antioxidants with a history of traditional medicinal use. This study aimed to find the most efficient polyphenol extraction solvent from WEPs, including Lasia spinosa, Eriosema chinense, Nasturtium indicum, Begonia hatacoa, and Embelia floribunda, for pharmaceutical and drug industry applications. Polyphenols, crucial antioxidants, were meticulously analyzed via RP-HPLC. Total phenolic, flavonoid, and flavonol levels were measured with four solvents. 80% aqueous (aq.) ethanol proved the most effective, surpassing solvents of varying polarities. The plants exhibited high total phenolics and flavonols, notably gallic acid (30.78±1.67 µg/mg dry extract) and syringic acid (32.03±1.89 µg/mg dry extract) in 80% Aq. ethanol extract of E. floribunda. Correlation analyses revealed strong connections between parameters, with 80% Aq. ethanol and acetone showing the highest correlation values (r and R2), indicating their exceptional polyphenol extraction and antioxidant potential. The principal component analysis emphasized the pharmaceutical potential of WEPs, particularly E. floribunda's 80% Aq. ethanol extract due to its phenolic and polyphenolic content. In conclusion, 80% of ethanol extracts of these plants outperform synthetic derivatives in antioxidant activity, making them promising for pharmaceutical and drug product development with enhanced natural antioxidant properties. Tapan Seal Basundhara Pillai Kausik Chaudhuri Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 2024-02-12 2024-02-12 15 1 40 58 10.26452/ijrps.v15i1.4662 Comparative study of tissue culture and sensitivity versus swab culture and sensitivity of microorganisms in the healing of diabetic foot ulcers This prospective observational study, conducted at the Department of General Surgery, SRM Medical College and Hospital, aimed to assess the effectiveness of tissue culture and sensitivity compared to swab culture and sensitivity in the healing of diabetic foot ulcers through antibiotic sensitivity of microorganisms. Between May 2016 and August 2017, 160 subjects with diabetic foot ulcers were randomly assigned treatment based on either swab or tissue culture findings. Patients were followed at 15-day intervals for up to 60 days. Results showed positive swab cultures in 76.88% and positive tissue cultures in 92.50% of the study population. The most prevalent organism in swab cultures was Proteus (14.38%), while Pseudomonas (16.88%) dominated in tissue cultures. The cumulative proportion of subjects developing granulation tissue was faster in the tissue culture group, reaching 57.50% at 15 to 30 days and 99% at 31 to 45 days. The swab culture group exhibited proportions of 48.80%, 75%, and 93.80% at the same intervals. In conclusion, diabetic foot ulcer treatment based on tissue culture showed slightly faster healing rates compared to swab culture. However, both groups achieved good ulcer healing within the 60-day follow-up period. These findings emphasize the importance of choosing an appropriate culture method for effective management of diabetic foot ulcers. Debarath Das Kishore D Lakshmana R Pravin Dhas Snigdha N Malarmannan M Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 2024-02-12 2024-02-12 15 1 25 31 10.26452/ijrps.v15i1.4660